Katla Threatens, Krakatau Blows

So I’m back  after a nasty hard disk failure, sorry for the absence, but a six year old Mac Mini can be a testy machine at times. These things happen.

Word has it that Katla is working up to an eruption, and may have already produced a sub-glacial eruption during the summer. Seismic activity at Katla seems to have been on the rise of late, spiking significantly over the last two days.

Tremor at Katla

Of course a major eruption of Katla poses the risk of lahars and flooding (because it’s covered with a glacier), as well as ash hazards to air traffic, but we don’t know that it will erupt, or if it does how big an eruption it will be. It’s just showing signs that it might be getting ready to erupt. Unfortunately the KatlaCam is down again this morning, so we can’t catch it in the act if it does erupt.

Katla has a far bigger magma chamber than does Eyjafjallajökull (which I can’t pronounce either) I’m told it’s magma chamber is ten times the size. Iceland’s volcanoes are capable of some pretty serious eruptions, the worst of them in historic times being the 1783 Fires of Skaftá at Lakagígar which lasted two years and killed a quarter of Iceland’s population by means of indirect effects. That eruption is said to have erupted the largest quantity of lava from a single eruption in historic times.


While Katla threatens to erupt Krakatau has just gone ahead and done it, not messing around in the least. Those monitoring the volcano have recorded between 6000 and 7000 volcanic quakes per day since the weekend, a big jump over the normal 200 or so,  which has inspired officials there to declare a 2km exclusion zone around the volcano, and advising that no one climb up to the crater to look in, which seems a no-brainer to me.

Krakatau seems to be entering a new eruptive phase and scientists there are trying to figure out the type and potential scale of the eruption. Given the drastic increase in volcanic quakes under the mountain it would indeed seem that it is entering a new eruptive phase in it’s pyroclastic cone-building stage.

Krakatau erupts in November of 2010

This latest eruption produced an ash column of about 3000 ft., larger than it’s  eruptions of previous years, and following a huge increase in seismic activity but this should not be taken to mean a major eruption is on the way.

Merapi produced an enormous eruption even when it’s seismic activity was quite low, and so that cannot be taken as an indicator of the scale of an impending eruption.

You may note that I do not refer to this volcano as “Anak” Krakatau, and that is because I do not regard it as the “child” of Krakatau. To me it’s Krakatau, plain and simple. Same magma chamber, same vent, new cone is all. It’s Krakatau’s newest incarnation, and I expect that it will in time go the way of all previous incarnations of Krakatau.

That is to say it will at some point produce another cataclysmic eruption and blow itself to bits, spreading destruction around the Sunda strait once again as it has done repeatedly in the past. I don’t expect this to happen anytime soon, but after it has built itself up to something like it’s previous size, perhaps creating another volcanic complex having multiple vents. Krakatau is known to have erupted in 416 AD, and again in 535 AD. So I have to think that sometime in the next 250 years or so it will repeat it’s 1883 performance.


Sheveluch has erupted again, producing an  8-10km ash cloud. No on is in danger from the eruption and no ashfall has been reported in the surrounding settlements. Sheveluch last erupted in May of 2009 and has been continually degassing and oozing lava since. Satellites observations have detected a “thermal anomaly” and a brightly incandescent lava dome.

Active Volcano Working Group:

Whilst digging around the web for news of the world’s volcanoes I came across a couple who are in love with volcanoes and spend their time photographing active volcanoes. Remind you of anyone?

Steve O'Meara at Kilauea

Donna and Steve O’Meara are the happy couple, and they certainly do remind me of Maurice and Katia Krafft. I fervently hope they do not meet the same fate, and wish them all the best in their pursuit. Back in 1973 I was at Kilauea, and looking at something very much like this, from about the same distance as Steve is from here on the right.

It gets pretty hot there in places. When I was there back then there was a lodge overlooking the volcano, which it has since consumed. Donna and Steve have taken some marvelous photos of volcanoes, and like the Kraffts have undertaken the mission of saving the lives of those living close to volcanoes.

Steve has a theory that volcanic eruptions can be predicted using the cycle of the moon, and plans to create color coded calendars for high and low volcanic activity. I’m not sure how that will work out, but it sounds like an interesting theory. I’ll see if I can figure out the moon cycle for some recorded eruptions and see if there might be anything to that. August 27th 1883 might be a good date to start with.

Like the Kraffts the O’meara’s are acutely aware of the dangers of what they are doing. Says Steve, “It is dangerous and we are always cautious, you have to be — one moment of stupidity could cost you your life.”

Well you don’t even have to be stupid. Volcanoes are notoriously unpredictable, and even the best laid plans can have fatal results. Again, I wish these two the very best of luck and pray for their safety.

Posted in Iceland, Indonesia, Katla volcano, Krakatau, Volcanology | Leave a comment

Kamchatka, Canaries, and Seismo-Art

For the most part the volcanoes of the world are not really ringing my bell lately. Tambora, my favorite, has not done anything interesting at all beyond it’s rumblings throughout August, or at least we have not heard anything if it has. Popo continues to puff, with a  plume of steam and gas lazily rising out of it’s crater this morning on the PopoCam, and the Colombian volcanoes of the Ruiz-Tolima massif seem relatively quiet after much disconcerting noise and seismicity earlier in the month.

Kizimen with ash plume

About the only volcanoes doing anything would seem to be those on the Kamchatka peninsula. Kizimen was showing high levels of  activity on the 23rd according to KVERT, with 1400 to 1600 volcanic quakes per day, and ash plumes up to 32,000 feet were expected any time. A “thermal anomaly” (hot lava) was observed on the flanks of the volcano all week.

Sheveluch has been erupting both explosively and extrusively of late, although it’s seismic activity has been more moderate than that of Kizimen. Moderate gas fumaroles have been observed, as well as the aforementioned “thermal anomaly.” I’m not sure how hot lava on the flanks of an active volcano is considered to be an anomaly.

Karymsky volcano, Kamchatka

Karymsky was producing explosions at last report, and registering moderate seismic activity. Karymsky, an un-vegetated stratovolcano which looks a bit like something drawn by Dr. Suess here to the left, is the most active volcano on the eastern Kamchatka peninsula and has frequently put on some spectacular shows of eruptive episodes.

Mt. Cleveland continues to ooze, and may have actually erupted, but we don’t know because of heavy cloud cover. There are no instruments at Cleveland, so we are left with aerial and satellite observations.

Meanwhile, back in the Canary Islands concern continues to mount over the elevated seismicity there and frequency of small quakes, the largest so far having been a magnitude 3.4, and the volcanic risk alert there has been raised to yellow amid swirling rumors that an eruption of El Hierro volcano would lead to a giant tsunami.

This sort of speculation is a leftover from the panic deliberately engineered years back about the possibility of the Cumbre Vieja volcano on the island of La Palma sliding into the ocean and generating a mega-tsunami that would wipe out the east coast of the U.S. That turned out  to be no more possible than the current wild speculation.

Lava field at El Hierro

El Hierro is a shield volcano, a type that generally produces effusive eruptions of slowly spreading lava flows as seen here, together with occasional lava fountains, and not likely to produce anything like a plinian eruption. The small quakes now registering are becoming progressively deeper, and were an eruption coming up one would expect them to be progressively shallower.

Moving right along:

Until I started this blog I had no idea how many people monitor seismographs around the world. I hadn’t thought it to be anything like the number that has become apparent since then. I have to wonder how many of them have been able to get accurate and valid information about what they are seeing on those seismographs, as some very odd things show up on them at times. I’d certainly appreciate input on some of those things.

This morning while looking at Cerro Machin in Columbia I see something that could almost be a kind of digital post-modern art piece, and might even make a neat wallpaper strip around the top of the walls.

This gives me an idea for a new product to market. I’m sure it would sell better than crop-circle carpeting that changes patterns overnight. I’m not at all sure what generated this on the seismograph there, but the previous readings seemed to be showing some kind of dysfunction with the instrument. Such malfunctions are not uncommon with seismographs which have to be set up in quite demanding places, and use radio links to transmit their data amid radio noisy environments.

The Aleutians seem to be a particularly troublesome environment for online seismographs, where they have to be set up at great expense on remote uninhabited islands with severe weather and high winds and serviced by crews who can only get to them by boat in sometimes dangerous seas. These stations are most often powered by solar panels which can ice over, reducing their power considerably, and generating rather odd readings as a result, and there are other power issues which might produce this result.

This might well be one of them:

Actually I like this one better for the wall-top border strip.

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A Curious Thing…

After the shutdown of the Columbian online helicorders this week, I am now finding that all the online seismographs surrounding the Yellowstone Park area were stopped from updating online early this morning, and no more data is coming out of them. Some of the seismographs inside the caldera were updating after that, but it’s difficult to make anything of what they are saying.

YNR 09-24-11

On the YNR seismograph at Norris we see what looks like continuous and uniform tremor, but I can’t quite believe that’s really seismic activity. I’m thinking it might be radio noise walking all over the radio link for the seismograph, or some kind of unusually prolonged hydrothermal tremor. I’m really not sure what to make of it. More to the point, I’m not sure why they left seismographs updating online within the park after shutting down all those outside the park.

Yellowstone YMR 9-24-11

Not far away at the Madison River station we see the activity picking up well before it usually does during the day, that being around 5:00 pm most days. Again, I’m not sure what to make of it, other than increased hydrothermal activity, which would tend to indicate increased heat, from increased magma, and I’d really rather not go there. So what I’m seeing today is rather curious. All the seismographs outside the park shut down on the web, and this going on inside the park. It seems as the days pass more and more seismographs become inaccessible online for some reason. I can’t really imagine why all of a sudden the helicorders at Red Lodge, Pinedale, Bozeman, Missoula, among others, would stop updating early this morning.

Just now trying to get to the MSO SPZ US seismograph at Missoula I get this:

The last time I heard of this happening was in 2009, after there had been some very worrisome seismic activity and ground uplift at Yellowstone, and USGS took down all the seismographs for the region on the web. Last night as I was looking at them there were large pieces of data missing, as though it had been edited out.

If anyone knows anything about this please do tell.

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Seismo-Blackout Columbia

It would seem that seismic data has stopped coming out of Columbia, at least for the Ruiz-Tolima massif. Several of the seismographs at Ruiz ceased updating online on the 20th, and shortly before midnight on the 21st  the rest of them at the Ruiz-Tolima massif quit altogether, at Cerro Machin, Cerro Bravo, and Nevado del Ruiz. This has seriously impacted my morning seismofix.

Cerro Machin volcano, Columbia

I am not able to find out the reason for this, but I’m still digging and I hope those seismographs come back online soon. It might be that they are having equipment problems, perhaps routers had to be moved or reconfigured, there was some quite serious seismicity at Cerro Machin on the 13th that shook things up a lot, and that may have something to do with it. The helicorders at Galeras are still updating online, and that volcano is very quiet.

Ruiz, Machin, and Bravo where the most entertaining and interesting things a going this week, and now I can’t even see their charts. No webcams that I know of there either. Data stopped being updated on Merapi back on August 8th and has not resumed. That was the only Indonesian volcano with online webicorders that I knew of.

Now I am left with Cascadia, the Aleutians, Iceland, and Yellowstone, none of which is doing anything interesting, and then there is Tambora, which seems to have stabilized according to the most recent report I can find, although it’s alert status has not as yet been lowered. Two people climbed to the summit three days ago, ignoring official channels to do so, and said that visually everything seems okay, although they did feel some tremors. We can always count on someone to ignore official channels where volcanoes are concerned.

Mt. St. Helens continues to twitch, there having been several small volcanic quakes there overnight recorded on the VALT station near the lava dome. These recorded before midnight were followed by more afterwards.

Mt. Etna in Italy has been putting on a show, reportedly it’s 14th paroxysm occurred at it’s new Southeast crater, and while clouds obscured the volcano visually it’s being said that it’s seismographs showed it to be undergoing a major eruptive episode with seismic activity as 30 times normal background levels. Sorry I missed that here, I was focused elsewhere.

Arial view of Etna summit, showing SE crater and ash plume

I had not found seismographs for Etna until this morning, my Italian not being all that good, (I can sorta read it and figure out what it says) and those I’ve found show nothing beyond background seismicity this morning, so I guess the show at Etna is over for now.

Until recently Etna was regarded as mainly an effusive volcano, producing running lava flows for the most part, but recent studies indicate it is capable of highly explosive plinian eruptions, and indeed it did produce one of those in 122 BC. Since the late 1970’s Etna has demonstrated an ability to produce explosive summit eruptions which it displayed dramatically from 1995 to 2001 with over a hundred lava fountains (paroxysms) and high ash plumes.


It might be that we see some action from Mt. St. Helens, the quakes under the lava dome last night have become continuous tremor there at the VALT broadband station in front of the lava dome. This has continued for over 40 minutes so far. I’ll be updating as I watch this.

VALT continuous tremor 09-23-11


After over two hours of continuous volcanic tremor under Mt. St. Helens this morning things seem to have grown quiet again. I’ll keep watching. This may indicate rising magma and it might well start up again at any time.

Mt. St. Helens is composed mostly of dacite making up a glassy rhyolitic matrix containing amphibole and plagioclase phenocrysts (Whittington, 530).  The dacite that Mt.St. Helens is composed of is hydrous.  Hydrous dacite cools at a rate that results in increased crystal fraction, decreased temperature, and massive volatile loss.  This results in a very low viscosity magma that causes violent, explosive eruptions.


Posted in Columbia, Galeras volcano, Mt. St. Helens, Nevado del Ruiz, Tambora, Uncategorized, Volcanology, Yellowstone | Tagged , , | Leave a comment

Ruiz Rattles, St. Helens Twitches, Cleveland Oozes…

I had thought that Columbia’s volcanoes were not yet done, and it would seem that they are not. Yesterday and this morning there has been strong seismic activity beneath the Ruiz-Tolima massif showing up on the seismographs for Ruiz, Machin, and Cerro Bravo.

Nevado del Ruiz

Ruiz Sept 20 OLL SHZ OM day quake

This event showed at all three volcanoes yesterday, although strongest at Ruiz, and has been followed by enough seismicity to show that things are not at peace under the Ruiz-Tolima massif. I really wish I had a good picture of the magmatic system there  as a context for what I see on the seismographs at each of the volcanoes.

Cerro Machin 09-20-11 2nd quake

A second quake followed the event shown above, and was strongest at Cerro Machin, which shows relatively quiet this morning, but of course that could change at any time. There have been some moderate rumblings at Ecuador’s Antisana volcano this morning, and last night at Reventador, but nothing to be overly concerned about as yet.

Monday I was cheered to see the return of the VALT broadband seismograph at Mt. St. Helens, and it came back online not long before an event was recorded there in front of the lava dome and that was followed by second event this morning of about the same size.

Welcome back VALT, Monday Sept. 19th.

So it would appear that St. Helens is still active and things are still going on under that lava dome. Nothing to get too excited about as yet, but it is interesting to watch.

VALT this morning, Sept. 21st

There is no news out of Indonesia that I can dig up this morning, Tambora is what I’d like to hear about, and I’ve heard there are now some western journalists there posting some scary hyped stories about it, which I don’t take at all  seriously because had Tambora done anything exciting or interesting we certainly would have heard a lot more than they have posted about it. They flew down there, so I guess they have to post something. The last update we have from there was on the 9th from Badan Geologi, and it doesn’t tell us anything we didn’t already know.

Cleveland Volcano

Alaska’s beautifully symmetrical Cleveland volcano continues it’s activity such as that is, and is now reported to be “oozing” lava down it’s flanks as it’s lava dome, which already filled the crater, continues to grow. Of course if that lava dome becomes unstable and collapses we could see an eruption, perhaps on the order of the 2006 eruption, but nothing seriously plinian should be expected. Ash plume hazards for aircraft may occur, and we might get some pretty neat pictures. Cleveland has oozed before this, that being the “thermal anomaly” mentioned in the press. It’s the sophisticated way of saying there’s hot lava coming out of the crater. Write that down, there may be a quiz later.

Yellowstone appears quiet this morning after a few small events on the YPK seismograph at the east end of the caldera yesterday, and not much is registering at Red Lodge east of the park either, which is a good thing.

Popocatépetl has resumed puffing, and more PopoPuffs are appearing on the PopoCam this morinng after two days of relative quiet. There seems to be stronger output from the volcano now than in the recent past.

Popo Puffs this morning on the PopoCam

I’ll be updating this post throughout the day should anything interesting occur.

Posted in Columbia, Indonesia, Nevado del Ruiz, Popocatepetl, Tambora, Uncategorized, Volcanology, Yellowstone | Leave a comment

Maurice and Katia, A Love Story

Among we who are fascinated with volcanoes there are very few of us so enamored of  them that we would willingly climb right up the edge of an erupting crater just to take pictures of of the eruption. In volcanology as in other areas of human endeavor it takes all kinds, and all kinds are usually supplied. If there were a volcanology Hall of Fame the most prominent in it would be Maurice and Katia Krafft. Both were fascinated by the sheer power and beauty of volcanic eruptions and anywhere a volcano was exploding you would find the Kraffts.

Maurice and Katia Krafft, all smiles

Maurice was fascinated with volcanoes from an early age, totally in love with them to the point where if one was erupting he had to be there, and not to watch from a distance, but from the edge of the crater if he could. In one interview he said, “I would like to die in a volcano, and unfortunately the probability for me to die in a volcano is quite low.”

Not a guy I would have dated, trust me, but Maurice did find his soul-mate in Katia, who decided at the tender age of 14 to become a volcanologist being just as enraptured with volcanoes as Maurice. “They are so powerful, so beautiful” she said, “so you just can fall in love with it.” The two met at the university of Strasbourg, and not long afterward they set off with the funds they had saved up to document eruptions in photographs and film, two powerful personalities united in their love for volcanism and eruptions. Their devotion to each other and their mutual passion is strongly evident in photos of the two of them together.

Maurice and Katia, the devoted couple

They headed for Stromboli right away and upon completing their work there found that lots of people were interested in what they were documenting, not the least of which were those public officials who had to deal with threatening volcanoes, and who, upon seeing their footage, gave them complete co-operation. They showed their footage of the aftermath of the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz to Phillipine president Corazon Aquino and convinced her to have the entire area around Mt. Pinatubo evacuated before it’s eruption. In this they certainly saved hundreds if not thousands of lives.

Katia Krafft at work

The Kraffts were absolutely fearless when it came to volcanoes, their passion for which completely overrode all sense of their own mortality.   They were the first to arrive at any active volcano and would frequently get within just a few feet of a lava flow. They were both keenly aware that the volcanoes that so fascinated them could kill them at any instant.

There are only about 1000 volcanologists in the world, and among them was a small subset of about 50 people, including the Kraffts, designated The Active Volcano Working Group. These were the people who would get right up close to an eruption.

Five of their friends doing the same work were killed at it over five years and that’s 10% of all those doing that work. What they were doing was more important to them than their own lives, their passion for their work completely overshadowing all other considerations. Not many of us can conceive of that kind of dedication to anything, and most of us would flee an erupting volcano with all possible speed. Not Katia and Maurice, they would be going just as fast the other way.

At one time Maurice said that one of his dreams was to ride in boat of some kind down a lava flow. He was sure it was possible somehow because, he said “lava is only about 1000 degrees Celsius.” Talk about positive thinking. For over 20 years they documented hundreds if not thousands of erupting volcanoes around the world, producing over 300 hours of film footage, thousands of still photos, and a host of books. Maurice once told an interviewer that all the best stuff was missed on film, because all he could do was stand and stare, transfixed, at it.

Katia, Maurice, and team members at Unzen shortly before the move to the plateau

Not long after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in 1991 the Kraffts left for Japan, where Mt. Unzen was erupting. In an interview there Maurice casually told the press, ” I am never afraid, because I have seen so much eruptions in 23 years that even if I die tomorrow I don’t care.” Not long after this Maurice, Katia and 41 others got into their vehicles and drove off to a low plateau about two miles from the summit of Unzen where they felt they could safely observe and document the eruption. It was to prove a fatal miscalculation. Not long after the team had set up something triggered a pyroclastic flow far larger than any that had so far occurred and it swept down the flanks of Unzen into a valley that funneled it ‘s superheated cloud of gases, rock, and ash straight at the Krafft team’s position.

Unzen pyroclastic flow 1991

By the time this film sequence was being shot Maurice, Katia, and their 41 team members were already dead, engulfed by an 800 degree centigrade  pyroclastic surge that swept up and over the low plateau they had set up on. All were killed instantly. The stunning and tragic loss of volcanology’s best was reported on the web page of the Global Volcanism Program:

Volcanology has lost three of its most valuable professionals and our network has lost three of our most faithful contributors. Maurice and Katia Krafft, 45 and 44, were natives of Alsace who blended art and science in unique ways. They were famous not only for their superb photography and books, but for the enthusiasm and humor that made friends for them throughout the world. Always a close team, they were scholarly, selective collectors of volcanological literature and art. They had recently compiled guidebooks to the Comores and Zaire, a history of volcanology, a beautiful book of still photographs, and an informative IAVCEI video on volcanic hazards.

Maurice and Katia left this world doing what they most loved, together in the passion that united them in this life and beyond.

Posted in Krafft, Unzen Volcano, Volcanology | Tagged , , , , , | 2 Comments

Volcano Patrol Sept. 19th

The most recent news out of Indonesia I’ve been able to find is that Semeru volcano (really a quite beautiful volcano) is erupting 3-4 times a day, and there is a growing lava dome in the crater. Activity at Semeru is said to be accelerating. This could get interesting, I just wish news of Indonesian volcanoes were more timely and accessible.

Semeru volcano. Ain't it just gorgeous?

The last I heard of Tambora is that villagers had left areas thought to be dangerous there using the recently established evacuation routes and were afraid to go back home. It might be that activity has become elevated there, but news is hard to come by.

Gede Suantika of the government Center for Volcanology said that activity started picking up in April when volcanic quakes increased to over 200 a month from about 5 per month, and Tambora began sending ash plumes 4,600 feet into the air, something it’s not been seen to do before this. Yeah, that would have gotten my attention too.

Apparently hundreds of people had evacuated the slopes of Tambora going to live with relatives elsewhere on Sumbawa Island. Having been raised on tales of what Tambora did in 1815 they were reluctant to go back home, but are starting to trickle back into their communities there at the urging of the local chief who wants them to harvest their crops and get their kids back into school. Can’t say as I blame them. It’s doubtful that anything like the 1815 eruption is due again but I wouldn’t risk it either, it doesn’t take a VEI 7 eruption to ruin your whole day.

I’ve been trying to find out what might be going on at Merapi, but the webicorders there are still displaying the data from August 8th, so nothing current to report, and that’s all I can find out about Indonesian volcanoes so far today.

Steaming crater at Cleveland volcano

Cleveland volcano is still commanding attention, and a new picture of the lava dome has been taken. It fills the crater now, and you can see that here. The thermal anomaly persists at Cleveland and an explosive eruption might occur at any time with no warning. AVO has no instruments on the volcano and can’t tell what it’s going to do until it does it. Quakes have continued to occur there in the Fox Islands, in the same area of the subduction zone all the others hit during The last six weeks. I’m not at all sure what the connection with Cleveland might be, if any, but it is interesting. Two more quakes hit there today, a 5.8 and a 5.4.

Yellowstone YPK station 9-19-11

Yellowstone continues to be interesting for me, this event  turned up on the YPK station inside the park. It’s not all quiet at that station on the east end of the caldera, and after what I saw there on the 12th just after midnight I’m keeping a close eye on the east end of the park as well as the seismographs at Red Lodge to the east of the park. The YMR station continues to display it’s daily cycle of seismicity, and at the MCID station at the western end of the caldera I see this very interesting sine wave form on the seismograph.

I’ve seen that before, most recently after the Vancouver quake on the St. Helens seismographs. It also appears on the YLA station and the YSB station to a lesser degree. I haven’t seen this very often, and I’m very much wanting to know what it means. It seems like a long wave and slow harmonic to me, and might be a slow movement of magma. At any rate it’s very interesting.

South America seems quiet still, and I don’t mind saying I feel a little let down by the volcanoes there. For a while there it really looked like something was going to happen.

If anything interesting does happen today I’ll update here.


As I said I’d be I’m watching Yellowstone, and the following appears at the Red Lodge site RLMT SPZ US:

Increasing tremor at RLMT SPZ US, Red Lodge MT, east of Yellowstone Caldera

You may remember that Red Lodge is where we saw the rather interesting event of the 12th just after midnight recorded strongest there about 70 miles east of Yellowstone, after which we continue to see other interesting seismicity, between Yellowstone’s eastern fracture zone and Red Lodge. That interesting event looked like this:

Long period event, increasing magmatic pressure

There was a second event following that recorded at Red Lodge:

Two days later this was followed by:

…. and the next day by:

Red Lodge RLMT LPZ US 09-15-11

…followed on the 16th at Yellowstone’s YPK station by…

…and on the 17th by this:

RLMT LPZ US 09-17-11 accelerating tremor

I thought I’d recap with a chronology because this is all so very interesting to me, and it might be interesting to others as well.


Posted in earthquake, super volcano, Tambora, Uncategorized, Volcanology, Yellowstone | Tagged , , | Leave a comment